International Benchmark

Case Studies

Summary of the main findings of the study

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In the description of the European examples, reference is often made to the regulator’s review of the wholesale broadband markets. 

The broad definition of these markets is defined at the EU level, with these definitions changing in 2007 and 2014:

2007 market definitions

2014 market definitions


wholesale (physical) network infrastructure access


wholesale local access at a fixed location


wholesale broadband access


wholesale central access for mass-market products

Cullen International has categorised the countries researched based on three broad kinds of separation:

  • Functional separation
    physically separated staff, systems and processes.
  • Legal separation
    separate legal entity remaining under the same overall ownership, physically separated staff, systems and processes.
  • Structural separation
    separate legal entity with different ownership.


Case Studies: Countries